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Because of the Handbook's potential for broad impact, external groups should review closely certain aspects of the Handbook, including: The approaches and methods finalized in the IRIS Handbook will impact how EPA develops and characterizes both the human health hazard values for chemicals and the evidence supporting them.对于那些对IRIS最终手册某些较详细方面感兴趣的人,下文我们将提供手册定稿中描述的一些重要方法实例。
Because of the Handbook's potential for broad impact, external groups should review closely certain aspects of the Handbook, including:
The approaches and methods finalized in the IRIS Handbook will impact how EPA develops and characterizes both the human health hazard values for chemicals and the evidence supporting them.对于那些对IRIS最终手册某些较详细方面感兴趣的人,下文我们将提供手册定稿中描述的一些重要方法实例。
Financial Conflicts: When determining who will be selected to conduct peer review of IRIS assessments, EPA will consider financial conflicts that may include significant investments, consulting arrangements, employer affiliation grants or contracts, expert witnesses, consulting arrangements, and honoraria.
Low Confidence Studies: When low confidence studies are identified, the IRIS Handbook states that these studies are given less weight compared to high or medium confidence results during evidence synthesis and integration,and are generally not used as the primary sources of information for hazard identificationor derivation of toxicity values unless they are the only studies available.
Consideration of Mechanistic Information: EPA is not taking a one-size-fits-all approach to the consideration of mechanistic information and states that the methods used to synthesize and integrate this evidence will depend on the uncertainties the information helps to address. The Handbook also states that, if the mechanistic evidence is conflicting or insufficient to support an association, this will not change the interpretation of results from the animal and human syntheses.
Expressions of Certainty: For individual health endpoints within an individual evidence stream, evidence will be classified as: robust, moderate, slight, indeterminate, or compelling evidence of no effect.
When integrating evidence across evidence streams, overall conclusions will be classified as: evidence demonstrates, evidence indicates (likely), evidence suggests, evidence inadequate, or strong evidence supports no effect.These expressions are visually depicted as:
⊕⊕⊕ Evidence demonstrates
⊕⊕⊙ Evidence indicates (likely)
⊕⊙⊙ Evidence suggests
⊙⊙⊙ Evidence inadequate
─ ─ ─ Strong evidence supports no effect
Statistical Significance Testing: A P-Value of p= 0.05 as a decision point for statistical significance is recognized as "… an arbitrary criterion, with no a priori connection to biological significance." Lack of statistical significance should not automatically be interpreted as evidence of no effect, and not all statistically significant results ("p < 0.05") should be interpreted as evidence of an effect.
Deriving Toxicity Values: Consistent with the EPA Cancer Guidelines, "toxicity values would not be developed for noncancer or cancer hazards with evidence suggests or suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity conclusions, respectively." However, the Handbook notes that there are some instances where a value might be useful.
Nonlinear Low-Dose Extrapolation: Consistent with past practice, nonlinear low-dose extrapolation is most commonly used for noncancer effects, and the Handbook states that the approach is also "used for cancer effects if there are sufficient data to ascertain the MOA and conclude that it is not linear at low doses, but without enough data to support chemical-specific modeling at low doses."Uncertainty Factors for Human Variation: Citing a technical panel report to EPA, which has not been officially adopted as Agency guidance, the Handbook directs users to reduce the default uncertainty factor (UF) of 10 only in cases where there is dose-response data for the most susceptible population. The Handbook states that the UF "is reduced only if the point of departure is derived or adjusted specifically for susceptible individuals [not for a general population that includes both susceptible and nonsusceptible individuals…]".
 For instance, for decades the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has been funding Core Center programs at universities throughout the U.S.有兴趣进行科学研究通知IRIS评估的研究人员和资助者想理解EPA对某些类型科学信息提供的优先事项学术和产业部门历来花费大量资源理解机制,使化学品对人体产生影响IRIS手册表示,“人或动物研究中观察到的关联性,如果预期发现不显见机械性证据,则可能减少”,它也表示,“现有机械性证据中不可推理不一致性.”。e/a/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/e/a/a/a/e手册表示, “ 努力深入分析与健康效果相关机制,并辅以多 med 和 high 信任人类研究得出的依赖接触结果,可能对危险定性结论产生相对小的影响。”at 4-41.
 Id. at 6-24.
 Id. at Chapter 6.
 Id. at 6-19.
 Id. at 7-1.
 Id. at 8-11.
 We note that, while the Handbook states that it does not supersede existing EPA risk assessment guidelines, the adoption of this 2002 technical panel report as guidance does appear to lead to the adoption of a new approach for the IRIS program.
 Id. at 8-12.
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On December 13, 2022, the US Department of Energy (DOE) published a Notice of Intent (NOI) to issue a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) titled, BIL-Carbon Utilization Procurement Grants Under Bipartisan Infrastructure Law Section 40302.
The Carbon Utilization Procurement Grant program provides incentives for the use of products developed from the conversion of carbon oxides emitted from human activity.碳捕获、存储和回用机会传统上设计解决范围狭窄问题,专供目标行业和分部门使用NOI概述的广泛条件建议广泛应用所有行业和供应链段 。spanid='more-3535'Q/span>
In addition to the NOPR, DOI announced on January 17, 2023 that it also signed a final rule on January 12, 2023, reassigning the existing regulations governing safety and environmental oversight and enforcement of OCS renewable energy activities from BOEM to the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE). The Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management, Laura Daniel-Davis, said that the final rule was aimed at "advance[ing] regulatory clarity and transparency for the offshore wind industry" by "allow[ing] the bureaus to focus on ensuring that future clean energy development and operations continue to occur in a safe and environmentally responsible manner." The final rule will take effect immediately upon its publication in the Federal Register.
With respect to the NOPR announced on January 12, it explains that BOEM is proposing changes that include "incremental funding of decommissioning accounts!弹性地球物理和地质测量提交需求精简批准气象浮标修改项目验证程序BOEM可再生能源拍卖流程改革and greater clarity regarding safety requirements." Publication of the NOPR in the Federal Register—which will likely occur by early February—will initiate a 60-day public comment period on the proposed rule.
BOEM estimates that the proposed revisions—if and when finalized—will save wind energy developers approximately $1 billion over a 20-year period. The NOPR describes the proposed rule as including eight major components:
The NOPR proposes to accomplish these eight components and broader policy goals by "modernizing regulations, streamlining overly complex and burdensome processes, clarifying ambiguous provisions, enhancing compliance provisions, and correcting technical errors and inconsistencies."
For example, in the first component of the proposed rule, BOEM recognizes that, in the nearly 15 years since the OCS renewable energy regulations were promulgated, the offshore wind industry has largely shifted from gathering meteorological data using towers ("met towers") fixed to the seafloor by foundations to using meteorological buoys ("met buoys") anchored to the seafloor to gather the same data. BOEM proposes to eliminate both the regulatory requirement to develop a site assessment plan for data collection conducted from met buoys and the limited lease requirement for installing off-lease met towers and met buoys. Likewise, in the second component of the proposed rule, BOEM notes that there is often uncertainty regarding the precise locations of offshore wind turbines at the time submission of construction and operations plans (COPs) is required, and lessees have therefore requested permission to submit geotechnical data for turbine locations after COP approval but before project construction begins. BOEM proposes to defer certain geotechnical survey requirements to align more closely to industry practice. The third component of the proposed rule focuses on the role of the certified verification agent (CVA) in reviewing the design, fabrication, and installation of offshore wind projects, and would revise the regulatory language to describe the CVA's role in terms of verification rather than certification.
In the fourth component of the proposed rule, BOEM proposes to establish a commitment for the Secretary of the Interior "to publish a schedule of anticipated lease sales that BOEM intends to hold in the subsequent 5 years ...[so that it may] provide advance notice to stakeholders of areas being considered for future lease sales." If adopted, this new proposed schedule "would be updated at least once every 2 years to reflect any changes," and "would include a general description of the area of each proposed lease sale, the anticipated quarter of each sale, and reasons for changes made to [any] previously issued leasing schedule." In the fifth and sixth components of the proposed rule, BOEM proposes to revise the regulations pertaining to pre- and post-auction procedure based on lessons learned through previous auctions—including by specifying actions to be taken if a provisional winner does not meet its obligations and if a lease is relinquished, contracted, or canceled—and to revise financial assurance requirements of lessees and grant holders to more closely align with the financial risks those requirements were intended to alleviate, including through allowing for incremental funding of decommissioning accounts. In the seventh component of the proposed rule, BOEM proposes to revise and clarify the requirements relating to safety management systems and safety reporting requirements.
Another potentially significant change is found in the eighth, catch-all component of the proposed rule, whereby the Department seeks to—among other things—"restructure commercial lease terms into four periods tied to activities required to develop the lease!明文允许在租约或授标发布或发布前后修改规范授权民事处罚而无需通知或时间纠正违法行为引起或威胁造成严重、不可弥补或即时伤害或损害添加租赁隔离合并的具体程序必威app手机官方网站and standardize the annual rental rate per acre across most grants."
The 364-page NOPR is both lengthy and technical, and will require careful thought and consideration from interested parties—especially the regulated community, whose wind energy development and operations on the OCS will be impacted by this rulemaking. Many of the proposed changes are potentially significant, and warrant comment from interested parties, especially from those in the regulated community who have existing OCS wind energy projects in their development portfolios or those parties who are thinking about expanding to such investments.
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Yesterday, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) (together, the Agencies) published a final rule revising the definition of "waters of the United States" (WOTUS) subject to federal regulation and permitting requirements under the Clean Water Act (CWA). This rule is the latest attempt by the Agencies to...
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Yesterday, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) (together, the Agencies) published a final rule revising the definition of "waters of the United States" (WOTUS) subject to federal regulation and permitting requirements under the Clean Water Act (CWA). This rule is the latest attempt by the Agencies to craft a durable rule defining WOTUS. The new rule, which largely mirrors the 2021 proposal, asserts a broader geographic scope of federal jurisdiction than the 2020 Navigable Waters Protection Rule (NWPR). In particular, the Agencies adopt the broadest possible interpretation of the Supreme Court's decision in Rapanos (through incorporation of both the plurality's "relatively permanent" test and Justice Kennedy's "significant nexus" test). The final rule would, for the first time, codify aspects of the Agencies' 2008 Rapanos Guidance and would rely on the significant nexus test's case-by-case approach for evaluating jurisdiction for tributaries, wetlands, and other waters. The Agencies released the final rule while the Supreme Court considers the scope of CWA authority over a major category of WOTUS, "adjacent wetlands," in Sackett v.EPA 和最高法院可能在未来数月下发可能需要修改规则的裁决 。spanid='more-3490'Q/span>While the Agencies previously characterized this rule as Phase 1 of a two-step process to enact a new WOTUS definition, EPA recently indicated that it is not currently planning a major second phase.
Summary of Final Rule
The rule defines WOTUS to include:
Exclusions. The final rule provides a list of features that are excluded even where they would otherwise qualify as jurisdictional impoundments, tributaries, adjacent wetlands, or other waters. Importantly, features that qualify as category 1 waters (TNWs, territorial seas, and interstate waters) cannot be excluded even if they meet the criteria of the exclusions provided. Key non-jurisdictional waters or exclusions include waste treatment systems, ditches, prior converted cropland, artificially irrigated areas, artificial lakes or ponds, and swales and erosional features.列表类似于2015WOTUS规则 和 2020 NWPR提供列表,尽管它没有提供NWPR所包括的明确定义,并在某些情况下根据序言解释修改免责范围。
Existing Jurisdictional Determinations
Landowners may obtain a jurisdictional determination in the form of either: (1) an approved jurisdictional determination (AJD), which is a Corps document identifying the limits of WOTUS on a parcel!或(2)初步司法判定文件非约束性文件,申请人可假设所有水将被视为司法管辖而不作正式判定。机构采取的立场是,根据NWPR发布AJD不可依赖作出新许可决策。根据序言,NWPR因两个区法院腾空而表示,NWPRAJDs“可能无法可靠地表示包裹上存在、缺缺或限值,而GIC在作出新许可决策时不依赖AJDs。”瑞格at 3136The Agencies take the position that AJDs issued under earlier WOTUS definitions—except those AJDs issued under the NWPR—remain valid until the AJD's expiration date. Also, the new rule will govern any pending requests for AJDs, if the AJD is issued on or after the effective date of the rule (March 20, 2023).
In contrast to AJDs, PJDs are advisory in nature and have no expiration date. The preamble clarifies that the new WOTUS rule has no impact on existing PJDs.
Potential Litigation and the Sackett Case
Multiple challenges to the new rule are likely to be filed in district courts across the country. The state of Texas and an industry coalition immediately filed suits in the U.S.District Court for the Southern District of Texas, and other suits are likely. At the same time, the Supreme Court's pending decision in Sackett may have implications for the durability of provisions of the rule.
Many commenters recommended that the Agencies defer issuing a final rule until the Supreme Court issues a decision in Sackett—a case in which the issue before the Court is "the proper test for determining whether wetlands are [WOTUS] under the [CWA]." A decision in the Sackett case is expected in the next few months. Perhaps trying to insulate the rule from a potentially unfavorable Supreme Court decision, the Agencies assert in the preamble the severability of the individual provisions of the rule. The preamble states, "if a court were to determine that a wetland cannot be treated as adjacent if it is separated from a jurisdictional water by road or other barrier, the agencies intend that other categories of wetlands within the rule's definition of ‘adjacent' would remain subject to jurisdiction." 88 Fed.瑞格3,135. 虽然尚不清楚最高法院将如何裁决Sacket ,但可能要求机构修改WOTUS新定义或面临法律挑战。
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Notably, EPA has renamed its Initiatives to emphasize the Agency's renewed focus on enforcement for the FY2024–2027 cycle, contrasting its approach to addressing its National Compliance Initiatives ("NCIs") in the current FY2020–2023 cycle (discussed in an earlier post).NCIs由上届政府建立,反映EPA对遵约保证的高度关注,以此作为改善环境结果的方法betway官网下载app2024-2027周期内将主动性重新命名为NECIs,因此反映-EPA代理助理Larry Starfield调用-a hrefserbetway官网下载appEPA计划使用传统的刑事和民事执法工具(司法和行政工具)以及非正式执法和合规保证工具来确保问责并鼓励环境更高合规性。EPA使用三大标准评价现有的6FY20202023NCI中的哪一个继续、修改或结尾,以及EAFE20232027周期应视新举措为EECIsbetway官网下载app这三个标准如下:
For the second new NECI that EPA proposes, PFAS contamination, EPA's proposal indicates an enforcement-oriented approach: "EPA [is] committed to hold polluters and other responsible parties accountable for their actions" and "assume responsibility." This focus is unsurprising considering the Agency's recent actions to research PFAS exposure pathways, reduce PFAS pollution, protect communities from PFAS, and more.betway官网下载appOECA执法力度范围未知,因为EPA已启动多条PFAS规则并期望最终确定s/www.epa.gov/sdwa/and-polyFlyalkyls-pfas目标服务局在 Lastly,EPA在联邦注册局上发布NECI招发公众评论局考虑纳入NECI程序的两个额外领域:(I)“减少接触铅”,EPA在所有环境媒体中都已经处理,但(EPA州)仍保留着“该国最紧迫的环境和人类健康问题之一!和(2)从燃煤电厂中提取煤燃烧残留物”(又称煤灰)。EPA承认财政资源限制局可纳入其NECI程序数简单征求评论表示OECA有可能增加对这两个领域的关注,而不管在FY2024-2027周期中将一或二命名为NECIbetway官网下载app简言之,新提议的NECIs与EPA最新的执法守法方法一致,该方法将机构更广泛的目标(审议气候变化和环境公正)纳入其决策过程中。betway官网下载app此外,EPA对新出现的环境问题保持高度警惕,如PFAS污染,并显示有意使用传统执法工具确保其政策目标实现betway官网下载app当前FY2020-2023NCIs将继续指导EPA(OECA)执法和守法工作直至FY2023结束,但EPA提议的FY2024-2027NECIs目前应准备目标行业受管实体betway官网下载app2023年9月底前将发布选择备忘录和FE2024-2027 NECIs/.s/p>sps
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These successes came to fruition via EPA's implementation of four key policies issued by OECA and were accentuated by EPA launching a new national office specifically positioned to "better advance environmental justice, enforce civil rights laws in overburdened communities, and deliver new grants and technical assistance." For example, environmental justice was at the core of EPA's execution of its National Compliance Initiatives ("NCIs")—improving air quality, ensuring clean and safe water, reducing risks from hazardous chemicals and acting to reduce lead exposure—in FY2022: Nearly 57% of EPA's on-site compliance monitoring and on-site inspections occurred at facilities impacting areas with potential environmental justice concerns.这一结果大大超出EPA战略计划确定的目标,即到2026年实现EPA45%现场检查目标。
Continuing the downward trend from FY2021's criminal enforcement results, EPA opened only 117 new criminal cases in FY2022, the second lowest number on record.尽管如此,被告必须支付罚款、归还和法院命令项目总额大幅增加,超过1.57亿美元。同往年一样,FY2022刑事罚款由单例驱动协议解决违反CAA车辆排放标准的问题 被告同意支付9600多万美元被判定有罪的个别被告共被判处21年监禁,这是EPA自2012年开始报告数据点以来的最低值并命令被告没收超过2.14亿美元的非法所得,其中包括单被告没收2.03亿美元OECA期望2023财政年度犯罪统计增加,因为机构增加民事检查并恢复受COVID-19大流行影响的现场环境犯罪工作队会议betway官网下载app工作队召集联邦、州和地方执法部门确定重点领域和评价局部趋势,并在调查开发案例时起乘法作用betway官网下载appOECA在此确认,任务团队是EPA克服自身刑事执法挑战能力的重要组成部分。
EPA将其刑事执法努力集中于严重威胁人类健康和环境的违法行为上不足为奇的是,在FY2022被判刑的被告中,32%从事犯罪活动,影响到被确定为潜在环境公正问题的地区。ahrfs/www.justice.gov/opa/pr/omaha-criptement-corpt-andits-betway官网下载apphrefss/www.justice.gov/usa-edca/pr/ex-directors-stropections/em/superfundbetway官网下载appOf those 86 agreements, 59 incorporated cleanup projects focused on protecting the environmental justice communities directly affected by the Agency's cleanup efforts—effectuating EPA's Implementation Plan for Strengthening Environmental Justice in EPA's Cleanup Enforcement Program issued on April 27, 2022.
One such cleanup occurred at a former Lead facility in East Chicago, Indiana, where EPA sought to eliminate potential lead exposure to a public housing complex and other residential properties nearby.EPA通过商谈两项协议便利清理工作:(1)要求新开发者-所有者清除财产污染;(2)强迫前五位其他所有者/运营者向当地环境局和EPA支付未来监督费用另一清理项目包括EPA、特拉华州和潜在责任方解决饮用水污染问题的努力EPA与24方商谈同意令,执行或资助网站清理活动-估计4 600万美元-按核准的补救行动工作计划和执行时间表值得注意的是,EPA积极鼓励受影响社区成员全程参与EPA
FY202,EPA进行了5 681现场检查-比FY2021大增78%增加可能反映2021财政年度COVID-19缺少现场视察,今年恢复现场视察对场外检验,EPA保持(甚至略增)FY2021数达8 000多betway官网下载appes/www.epa.gov/force/National-acceptives目标='#blank'rel='norernoopener'>NCIs 尽管有这些值得注意的守法结果,工程处尚未匹配COVID-19大流行前现场检验数(FY20198179)。EPA计划在FY2023中继续这一上升趋势。
FY2022报告确定气候变化和PFAS为局致力于解决的“不断变化的环境与公共健康问题”。EPA2022财政年度行动据OECA称为处理这些危机打下基础betway官网下载appIn addressing climate change, EPA touted two accomplishments: (1) the development of its Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan and (2) the establishment of a new enforcement program for hydrofluorocarbon ("HFC") emissions—in accordance with the requirements set forth in the American Innovation and Manufacturing Act of 2020 ("AIM Act").
With regard to PFAS, EPA's enforcement and compliance programs for FY2022 focused on implementing its 2021 to 2024 Per- and Poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) Strategic Roadmap (which we reviewed in October 2021).2022财政年度报告指出,EPA采取行动更好地了解PFAS并前所未有地解决PFAS污染问题In accordance with EPA Administrator Regan's directive: "EPA staff ...betway官网下载appuse[d] every enforcement tool at [the Agency's] disposal to require manufacturers of PFAS to address potential endangerment to the public." While some have praised EPA's efforts, others have contested EPA's recently exercised authority to "hold polluters accountable." Nonetheless, this area of enforcement will undoubtedly continue to make headlines as the Agency learns more about PFAS chemicals and works towards its enforcement and compliance goals set forth in its Strategic Roadmap.
EPA's enforcement and compliance actions in FY2022 reflect the Agency's Environmental Justice and Climate Change goals established by President Biden's EO 14008 and advanced by EPA Administrator Regan's internal directive.FY2021是工程处基础年,FY2022成为EPA执行年-效果战略计划、路径图和其他政策betway官网下载app环境公正因素无疑会继续激励EPA执法方法特别是,EPA可能继续关注那些对负担过重社区构成最大风险的实体和个人。betway官网下载app风险形式为有害化学释放或促进气候变化影响的排放,EPA FY22结果清楚地表明,EAFE22执行结果:关键聚焦环境正义和气候变化 优先出现在ss/www.ksrxrays.com
Below是上星期得克萨斯州两次CCUS事件的一些要点:Midland年度CO2EOR大会,近30年来一直持续!和休士顿大学主办的CCCUS风险管理专题讨论会先从后入手CCUS Risk Management Symposium Many companies considering...
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Below是上星期得克萨斯州两次CCUS事件的一些要点:COS2 idssserved长期预测六级UIC存储安全 当正确操作,但安全度多高风险类型是什么如何显示存储场会风险多久可赔偿多少哪些工具可用帮助管理风险多年来,我们和其他人一直在研究这类问题,但随着CCUS项目量的考虑急剧增加,这类问题正出现到新受众中。
Thunton Andrews KurthLP上星期与休斯顿大学能源碳管理中心主办的专题讨论会将这些要点带给广大受众必威app手机官方网站我们需要联系那些新学习CCUS并需要可靠信息者必威app手机官方网站深入探讨这些问题可见于我最近与工业经济学奇亚拉Trabucchi和Marsh的Dan McGarvey所写:感谢上周专题讨论会上所有讲演者Chuck McConnell及其休士顿大学团队。Cosuper>2 2 /综合各种因素使今年大会非常及时和受欢迎,包括最近通过《降低通货膨胀法》颁布增加碳捕获存储和净化氢生产奖励办法(后者可能导致增加碳捕获和存储)化石燃料使用和生产公司增加承诺减少碳排放并需要增加美国油气生产向目前依赖不稳定源的世界提供量。
a关键取出是,参与CO 2 -EOR的公司似乎多半正在考虑重大新项目,这将产生更多CO2 存储量,而许多公司正在考虑重大行动,认为这是一项战略转移,而不是从石油转移,我们需要几十年时间,而是能源过渡中类似学科会议第一天全天由Mike Moore运营的碳管理讲习向低碳排放未来过渡-世界将继续依赖传统能源-与大量金融激励相匹配-正在刺激能源生产、转换和交付的富有想象力建议。/p>反之,任何参会者本会消除-这与客户调查一致-即业界已踏入低碳路径,化石燃料和CCUS是该路径不可或缺的元素。 spost
Convol与威胁列表北DPS,FWS发布一条4(d)规则允许某些活动进行,主要有益于现有农场,不构成ESA第9节“Take”,但需遵守4(d)规则的规定The 4(d) rule, thus, lifts the prohibition against incidental "take" for routine agriculture activities on lands that have been cultivated for at least five years. In addition, it recognizes the value of grazing management and includes an exception for producers following site-specific prescribed grazing plans developed by a qualified party and approved by the FWS. Finally, the 4(d) rule provides an exception for implementation of prescribed burning for grassland management.
Although FWS recognizes that other industrial activities, including oil and gas and wind energy development, occur in the northern DPS LPC range, it does not except those activities from the incidental "take" prohibition in the 4(d) rule.举例说,FWS指出,石油和天然气生产大都超过LPC估计历史和当前范围,并可能导致对物种栖息地的直接和间接影响。类似地,FWS表示,大平原州LPC栖息地内可能出现新风能开发service指针油气和可再生能源部门相关方的其他守法选项,以管理其受控风险 。例如,北南DPS中的油气生产者参加现有的Conserent Conservation并附保协议(CCA)对注册地覆盖活动有一定监管保证acada通过许可向参与者提供覆盖,保证不要求他们执行超出Cadada额外保护措施FWS表示,现有两个CAP覆盖南DPSLPC油气开发-一个由危险材料管理英才中心管理,第二个由Western渔业和野生生物机构协会管理此外,对于未注册CACA的油气项目,LPC可使用,项目建议者可注册最近批准的HCP保护HCP 或开发自己的HCP 类似地,FWS指出,可再生能源项目对LPC的潜在影响可以通过CACs、HCPs和附带许可解决。例如,可再生能源项目可注册可再生能源HCP,它覆盖五州LPC范围的大部分And in 2021, the Service developed Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines, which may assist developers in minimizing impacts to wildlife while siting projects.
The Service recommends project proponents engage in early consultation with FWS to identify ways to avoid potential conflicts to LPC. FWS states that it is committed to working collaboratively with industry to achieve infrastructure development goals while ensuring compliance with the ESA, and where impacts cannot be avoided, expects that project proponents will be able to enroll in HCPs or work with the Service to develop other ESA compliance mechanisms.
Hunton Andrews Kurth Endangered Species Act Experience
Hunton's environmental team has represented clients in permitting, regulatory and litigation matters involving a wide range of wildlife laws, settings, and species.律师对ESA经验丰富并全面知识丰富 与跨行业客户合作管理许可和诉讼经验包括北极熊、佛罗里达豹、甲壳类动物、鲸鱼、高呼起重机、草原-雪茄类动物、狼类动物、贝类动物、松鼠类动物、蝙蝠类动物、蛇类动物和各种其他物种(包括入侵性物种)栖息地从新英格兰岸和佛罗里达湿地到大平原 跨德州山地到加利福尼亚和夏威夷并前后数个联邦和州机构,包括FWS、NMFS、USA工兵团、USDA此外,我们定期帮助客户确保遵守欧空局及其实施规则,导航ESA第7节咨询过程,并视必要获取附带覆盖We have helped clients with large-scale and project-specific HCPs and related NEPA and other environmental reviews.
Our ESA practice includes authors Karma Brown and Linda Trees, as well as other attorneys from our Natural Resources practice.
 As explained previously, a DPS is a portion of a species' or subspecies' population or range that is described geographically rather than biologically.DPS意图允许FWS根据不同环境对列表决策进行裁剪。